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The Resource Management processes provide guidance for managing the project team and the management and deployment of physical resources to support the project activities.
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Project Resource Management
The Resource Management processes provide guidance for managing the physical resources and the project team including the core team, extended team and any project staff.
When to use
Many of these processes will need to be used frequently throughout the lifecycle of the project. Different physical resources become available at different times during the project. Team members change, roles change, outside factors can influence internal team performance and relationships. If there are people involved (and there are always people involved) these processes apply.
Project Resource Management
"Project Resource Management includes the processes to identify, acquire, and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project.” PMBOK® Guide
These processes apply to physical resources such as facilities and equipment and to the project team and team issues. The project may use few physical resources and have a very small team who know each other well. The project may be controlling massive amounts of equipment and physical resources with a large multi-location, multi-cultural team that have never met each other before. In either case these processes should be used, but the amount of time and effort to achieve the process outputs and the number of tools and techniques needed may change dramatically. In some cases the project team, or a portion of it, may report directly to the project manager. In most cases, they do not. When that is the case, the value of these processes is heightened. Although it should go without saying, I will repeat it anyway. Ethical behavior is essential to maintain effectiveness with your project team. If they ever suspect you of lying, stealing, or cheating, it is virtually impossible to ever regain their confidence.
Project Resource Management Processes
There are four Project Human Resources Management Processes. They relate to each other as shown in the diagram below. The four processes are:
- 9.1 Plan Resource Management: “The process defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and utilize physical and team resources.” PMBOK® Guide
- 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources: “The process of estimating team resources and the type and quantity of material, equipment and supplies necessary to perform project work.” PMBOK® Guide
- 9.3 Acquire Resources: “The process of obtaining team members, facilities, equipment, material, supplies and other resources necessary to complete project work.” PMBOK® Guide
- 9.4 Develop Team: “The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.” PMBOK® Guide
- 9.5 Manage Team: “The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.” PMBOK® Guide
- 9.6 Control Resources: “The process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned as well as monitoring the planned versus actual use of the resources, and performing corrective action as necessary.” PMBOK® Guide
Definitions are taken from the Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK® Guide) – Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017, Pages 698, 702, 705, 706, 710, 713, and 717. PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
Project Team Management
There are many tools and techniques that can be used to assist the project manager in the management of the project team. One of the most commonly cited tools and techniques is Interpersonal and Team Skills. In addition to the personal interactions, the project manager will normally need to get the team working together. He or she can not do all the communication and interactions, the team will need to connect and function together. There are several techniques that are very useful to the management of the team interactions.
If the project has more than just three or four team members, you should plan on using a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), often referred to as a RACI matrix. In addition, as the team starts to work together it often goes through stages of team development interactions: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
Just as a side note, most project teams cycle back and forth between Storming and Norming, only occasionally getting to Performing. That is due to the temporary and unique nature of the project. Normally some of the team members have never worked together before, so they need to storm and then norm. Just about the time they get the teams “norms” worked out, a new team member joins, or the project moves to a new phase, the responsibilities change.
Which leads to the last tool I want to discuss. Teams often face conflict. When that occurs, first and foremost strive to keep it on a level of professional disagreement and not personal attacks. The Thomas Kilman Model is a great technique for determining a strategy to pursue to resolve the conflict. Just remember, projects may not have time to find the collaborative answer and will need to fall back to a compromise solution.
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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.